SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
Commission File Number: 0-24649
REPUBLIC BANCORP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
incorporation or organization)
601 West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky
(Address of principal executive offices)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (502) 584-3600
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common
The Nasdaq Stock Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. ☐ Yes ☒ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). ☒ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☒
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ◻
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). ☐ Yes ☒ No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2019 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $491,574,486 (for purposes of this calculation, the market value of the Class B Common Stock was based on the market value of the Class A Common Stock into which it is convertible).
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, as of February 21, 2020 was 18,742,970 and 2,205,051.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held April 23, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
The terms identified in alphabetical order below are used throughout this Form 10-K. You may find it helpful to refer to this page as you read this report.
Automated Clearing House
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Office of Foreign Assets Control
Available for Sale
Executive Vice President
Other Real Estate Owned
Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses
Fair Credit Reporting Act
U.S. Patriot Act
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Purchased Credit Impaired
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Federal Deposit Insurance Act
PCI - Group 1
Adjustable Rate Mortgage
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act
PCI - Substandard
Accounting Standards Codification
Federal Funds Target Rate
The Wall Street Journal Prime Interest Rate
Accounting Standards Update
Federal Housing Administration
Provision for Loan and Lease Losses
Automated Teller Machine
Financial Holding Company
Performance Stock Unit
Ability to Repay
Federal Home Loan Bank
Research and Development
Basic earnings per Class A Common Share
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
RB&T / the Bank
Republic Bank & Trust Company
Bank Holding Company
Fair Isaac Corporation
Republic Bancorp Capital Trust
Bank Holding Company Act
Federal National Mortgage Association
Republic Credit Solutions
Bank Owned Life Insurance
Federal Open Market Committee
Republic / the Company
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
Brokered Price Opinion
Federal Reserve Act
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
Bank Secrecy Act
Federal Reserve Bank
Return on Average Assets
Construction and Development
Full Time Equivalent
Return on Average Equity
Commercial and Industrial
Funds Transfer Pricing
Republic Processing Group
Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States
Republic Payment Solutions
Commercial Credit Administration Department
Core Deposit Intangible
Home Equity Amortizing Loan
Standard and Poor's
Chief Executive Officer
Home Equity Line of Credit
SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin
Chief Financial Officer
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act
Special Asset Committee
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
Held to Maturity
Small Business Administration
Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Internal Revenue Service
Securities and Exchange Commission
Collateralized Mortgage Obligation
Interactive Teller Machine
Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
Constant Maturity Treasury Index
Kentucky Department of Financial Institutions
Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase
The Traditional Banking, Warehouse Lending, and Mortgage Banking reportable segments
London Interbank Offered Rate
Senior Vice President
Community Reinvestment Act
2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
Commercial Real Estate
Loan Production Office
Troubled Debt Restructuring
Deposit Insurance Fund
Loan to Value
Republic Insurance Services, Inc.
Diluted earnings per Class A Common Share
Mortgage Backed Securities
Truth in Lending Act
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
Mortgage Purchase Program
Trust Preferred Securities
Deferred Tax Assets
Mortgage Servicing Rights
Tax Refund Solutions
Deferred Tax Liabilities
NASDAQ Global Select Market®
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Electronic Fund Transfers Act
Other Comprehensive Income
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements relating to future results of Republic Bancorp, Inc. that are considered “forward-looking” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The forward-looking statements are principally, but not exclusively, contained in Part I Item 1 “Business,” Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
As used in this filing, the terms “Republic,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Republic Bancorp, Inc., and, where the context requires, Republic Bancorp, Inc. and its subsidiaries. The term the “Bank” refers to the Company’s subsidiary bank: Republic Bank & Trust Company. The term the “Captive” refers to the Company’s insurance subsidiary: Republic Insurance Services, Inc.
Forward-looking statements discuss matters that are not historical facts. As forward-looking statements discuss future events or conditions, the statements often include words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “target,” “can,” “could,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “potential,” or similar expressions. Do not rely on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements detail management’s expectations regarding the future and are not guarantees. Forward- looking statements are assumptions based on information known to management only as of the date the statements are made and management undertakes no obligation to update forward-looking statements, except as required by applicable law.
Broadly speaking, forward-looking statements include:
projections of revenue, income, expenses, losses, earnings per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure, or other financial items;
descriptions of plans or objectives for future operations, products, or services;
forecasts of future economic performance; and
descriptions of assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to the following:
changes in political and economic conditions;
the magnitude and frequency of changes to the FFTR implemented by the FOMC of the FRB;
long-term and short-term interest rate fluctuations as well as the overall steepness of the U.S. Treasury yield curve;
competitive product and pricing pressures in each of the Company’s five reportable segments;
equity and fixed income market fluctuations;
client bankruptcies and loan defaults;
natural disasters impacting Company operations;
integrations of acquired businesses;
changes in technology;
changes in applicable laws and regulations or the interpretation and enforcement thereof;
changes in fiscal, monetary, regulatory and tax policies;
changes in accounting standards;
changes to the Company’s overall internal control environment;
success in gaining regulatory approvals when required;
the Company’s ability to qualify for future R&D federal tax credits;
information security breaches or cyber security attacks involving either the Company or one of the Company’s third-party service providers; and
other risks and uncertainties reported from time to time in the Company’s filings with the SEC, including Part 1 Item 1A “Risk Factors.”
Republic is a financial holding company headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. The Bank is a Kentucky-based, state-chartered non-member financial institution that provides both traditional and non-traditional banking products through five reportable segments using a multitude of delivery channels. While the Bank operates primarily in its market footprint, its non-brick-and-mortar delivery channels allow it to reach clients across the United States. The Captive is a Nevada-based, wholly-owned insurance subsidiary of the Company. The Captive provides property and casualty insurance coverage to the Company and the Bank as well as a group of third-party insurance captives for which insurance may not be available or economically feasible.
Republic Bancorp Capital Trust is a Delaware statutory business trust that is a wholly-owned unconsolidated finance subsidiary of Republic Bancorp, Inc.
As of December 31, 2019, Republic had 41 full-service banking centers and two LPOs with locations as follows:
Kentucky — 28
Metropolitan Louisville — 18
Central Kentucky — 7
Georgetown — 1
Lexington — 5
Shelbyville — 1
Northern Kentucky — 3
Covington — 1
Crestview Hills — 1
Florence — 1
Southern Indiana — 3
Floyds Knobs — 1
Jeffersonville — 1
New Albany — 1
Metropolitan Tampa, Florida — 8*
Metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio — 1
Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee — 3*
*Includes one LPO
Republic’s headquarters are in Louisville, which is the largest city in Kentucky based on population.
The principal business of Republic is directing, planning, and coordinating the business activities of the Bank. The financial condition and results of operations of Republic are primarily dependent upon the results of operations of the Bank. At December 31, 2019, Republic had total assets of $5.6 billion, total deposits of $3.8 billion, and total stockholders’ equity of $764 million. Based on total assets as of December 31, 2019, Republic ranked as the largest Kentucky-based financial holding company. The executive offices of Republic are located at 601 West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, telephone number (502) 584-3600. The Company’s website address is www.republicbank.com.
Website Access to Reports
The Company makes its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, available free of charge through its website, www.republicbank.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. The information provided on the Company’s website is not part of this report, and is therefore not incorporated by reference, unless that information is otherwise specifically referenced elsewhere in this report. The SEC maintains an internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
General Business Overview
As of December 31, 2019, the Company was divided into five reportable segments: Traditional Banking, Warehouse, Mortgage Banking, TRS, and RCS. Management considers the first three segments to collectively constitute “Core Bank” or “Core Banking” operations, while the last two segments collectively constitute RPG operations. The Company’s national branchless banking platform, MemoryBank®, is considered part of the Traditional Banking segment.
(I) Traditional Banking segment
As of December 31, 2019 and through the date of this filing, generally all Traditional Banking products and services, except for a selection of deposit products offered through the Bank’s separately branded national branchless banking platform, MemoryBank, were offered through the Company’s traditional RB&T brand.
The Bank’s principal lending activities consist of the following:
Retail Mortgage Lending — Through its retail banking centers and its Consumer Direct channel, the Bank originates single-family, residential real estate loans. In addition, the Bank originates HEALs and HELOCs through its retail banking centers. Such loans are generally collateralized by owner-occupied, residential real estate properties. For those loans originated through the Bank’s retail banking centers, the collateral is predominately located in the Bank’s market footprint, while loans originated through the Consumer Direct channel are generally secured by owner occupied collateral located outside of the Bank’s market footprint.
The Bank offers single-family, first-lien residential real estate ARMs with interest rate adjustments tied to various market indices with specified minimum and maximum adjustments. The Bank generally charges a higher interest rate for its ARMs if the property is not owner occupied. The interest rates on the majority of ARMs are adjusted after their fixed rate periods on an annual basis, with most having annual and lifetime limitations on upward rate adjustments to the loan. These loans typically feature amortization periods of up to 30 years and have fixed interest-rate periods generally ranging from five to ten years, with demand dependent upon market conditions. In general, ARMs containing longer fixed-rate periods have historically been more attractive to the Bank’s clients in a relatively low-rate environment, while ARMs with shorter fixed-rate periods have historically been more attractive to the Bank’s clients in a relatively high-rate environment. While there is no requirement for clients to refinance their loans at the end of the fixed-rate period, clients have historically done so the majority of the time, as most clients are interest-rate-risk averse on their first mortgage loans.
Depending on the term and amount of the ARM, loans collateralized by single family, owner-occupied first lien residential real estate may be originated with an LTV up to 90% and a combined LTV up to 100%. The Bank also offers a 100% LTV product
for home-purchase transactions within its primary markets. The Bank does not require the borrower to obtain private mortgage insurance for ARM loans. Except for the HEAL product under $150,000, the Bank requires mortgagee’s title insurance on single family, first lien residential real estate loans to protect the Bank against defects in its liens on the properties that collateralize the loans. The Bank normally requires title, fire, and extended casualty insurance to be obtained by the borrower and, when required by applicable regulations, flood insurance. The Bank maintains an errors and omissions insurance policy to protect the Bank against loss in the event a borrower fails to maintain proper fire and other hazard insurance policies.
Single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans with fixed-rate periods of 15, 20, and 30 years are primarily sold into the secondary market. MSRs attached to the sold portfolio are either sold along with the loan or retained. Loans sold into the secondary market, along with their corresponding MSRs, are included as a component of the Company’s Mortgage Banking segment, as discussed elsewhere in this filing. The Bank, as it has in the past, may retain such longer-term, fixed-rate loans from time to time in the future to help combat market compression. Any such loans retained on the Company’s balance sheet would be reported as a component of the Traditional Banking segment.
The Bank does, on occasion, purchase single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans made to low-to-moderate income borrowers and/or secured by property located in low-to-moderate income areas in order to meet its obligations under the CRA. In connection with loan purchases, the Bank receives various representations and warranties from the sellers regarding the quality and characteristics of the loans.
Consumer Direct Lending — Through its Consumer Direct channel, formerly named its Internet Lending channel, the Bank accepts online loan applications for its RB&T branded products through its website at www.republicbank.com. Historically, the majority of loans originated through its Consumer Direct channel have been within the Bank’s traditional markets of Kentucky, Florida and Indiana. Other states where loans are marketed include Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and Virginia, as well as, the District of Columbia.
Commercial Lending — The Bank conducts commercial lending activities primarily through Corporate Banking, Commercial Banking, Business Banking, and Retail Banking channels.
In general, commercial lending credit approvals and processing are prepared and underwritten through the Bank’s CCAD. Clients are generally located within the Bank’s market footprint, or in adjacent, nearby areas to the market footprint.
Credit opportunities are generally driven by the following: companies expanding their businesses; companies acquiring new businesses; and/or companies refinancing existing debt from other institutions. The Bank has a focus on C&I lending, and owner-occupied and nonowner-occupied CRE lending. The targeted C&I credit size for client relationships is typically between $1 million to $5 million, with higher targets, $5 million to $20 million for large Corporate Banking borrowers of higher credit quality.
C&I loans typically include those secured by general business assets, which consist of equipment, accounts receivable, inventory, and other business assets owned by the borrower/guarantor. Credit facilities include annually renewable lines of credit and term loans with maturities typically from three to five years and may also involve financial covenant requirements. These requirements are monitored by the Bank’s CCAD. Underwriting for C&I loans is based on the borrower’s capacity to repay these loans from operating cash flows, typically measured by EBITDA, with capital strength, collateral and management experience also important underwriting considerations.
Corporate Banking focuses on larger C&I and CRE opportunities. For CRE loans, Corporate Banking focuses on stabilized CRE with low leverage and strong cash flows. Borrowers are generally single-asset entities and loan sizes typically range from $5 million to $20 million. Primary underwriting considerations are property cash flow (current and historical), quality of leases, financial capacity of sponsors, and collateral value of property financed. The majority of interest rates offered are based on a floating rate index like LIBOR or the CMT. Fixed-rate terms of up to 10 years are available to borrowers by utilizing interest rate swaps. In some cases, limited or non-recourse (of owners) loans will be issued, with such cases based upon the capital position, cash flows, and stabilization of the borrowing entity.
Commercial Banking focuses on medium size C&I and CRE opportunities. Borrowers are generally single-asset entities and loan sizes typically range from $1 million to $5 million. As with Corporate Banking, the primary underwriting considerations are property cash flow (current and historical), quality of leases, financial capacity of sponsors, and collateral value of property financed. Interest rates offered are based on both fixed and variable interest-rate formulas.
The Bank’s CRE and multi-family loans are typically secured by improved property such as office buildings, medical facilities, retail centers, warehouses, apartment buildings, condominiums, schools, religious institutions, and other types of commercial use property.
The Business Banking and Business Development groups, reporting up under Retail Banking, focus on locally based small-to-medium sized businesses in the Bank’s market footprint with annual revenues between $1 million and $20 million, and borrowings between $500,000 and $2 million. The needs of these clients range from expansion or acquisition financing, equipment financing, owner-occupied real estate financing, and operating lines of credit.
In 2018, the Bank became an SBA Preferred Lending Partner, which allows the Bank to underwrite and approve its own SBA loans in an expedited manner. In 2020, the Bank established its SBA Department, led by an experienced veteran lender to oversee its SBA programs and performance. The Bank looks to make loans to borrowers generally up to $1.5 million under the SBA “7A Program,” as well as utilize the “504 Program” for owner-occupied CRE opportunities. The goal for the Bank is to expand its SBA platform over time and support the opportunities that arise within its markets. The Bank’s lenders utilize all appropriate programs of the SBA to reduce credit risk exposure.
Construction and Land Development Lending — The Bank originates business loans for the construction of both single-family, residential properties and commercial properties (apartment complexes, shopping centers, office buildings). While not a focus for the Bank, the Bank may originate loans for the acquisition and development of residential or commercial land into buildable lots.
Single-family, residential-construction loans are made in the Bank’s market area to established homebuilders with solid financial records. The majority of these loans are made for “contract” homes, which the builder has already pre-sold to a homebuyer. The duration of these loans is generally less than 12 months and repaid at the end of the construction period from the sale of the constructed property. Some loans are made on “speculative” homes, which the builder does not have pre-sold to a homebuyer but expects to execute a contract to sell during the construction period. These speculative homes are considered necessary to have in inventory for homebuilders, as not all homebuyers want to wait during the construction period to purchase and move into a newly built home.
Commercial-construction loans are made in the Bank’s market to established commercial builders with solid financial records. Typically, these loans are made for investment properties and have tenants pre-committed for some or all of the space. Some projects may begin as speculative, with the builder contracting to lease or sell the property during the construction period. Generally, commercial construction loans are made for the duration of the construction period and slightly beyond and will either convert to permanent financing with the Bank or with another lender at or before maturity.
Construction-to-permanent loans are another type of construction-related financing offered by the Bank. These loans are made to borrowers who are going to build a property and retain it for ownership after construction completion. The construction phase is handled just like all other construction loans, and the permanent phase offers similar terms to a permanent CRE loan while allowing the borrower a one-time closing process at loan origination. These loans are offered on both owner-occupied and nonowner-occupied CRE.
Consumer Lending — Traditional Banking consumer loans made by the Bank include home-improvement and home-equity loans, other secured and unsecured personal loans, and credit cards. Except for home-equity loans, which are actively marketed in conjunction with single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans, other Traditional Banking consumer loan products (not including products offered through Republic Processing Group), while available, are not and have not been actively promoted in the Bank’s markets.
Aircraft Lending — In October 2017, the Bank created an Aircraft Lending division. At the beginning, the initial loan size was offered up to $500,000. In 2019, the Bank increased the opportunity to finance up to $1.0 million. All aircraft loans typically range in amounts from $55,000 to $1,000,000, with terms up to 20 years, to purchase or refinance personal aircraft, along with engine overhauls and avionic upgrades. The aircraft loan program is open to all states, except for Alaska and Hawaii.
The credit characteristics of an aircraft borrower are higher than a typical consumer in that they must demonstrate and indicate a higher degree of credit worthiness for approval.
See additional discussion regarding Lending Activities under the sections titled:
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses”
The Bank’s other Traditional Banking activities generally consist of the following:
MemoryBank — In October 2016, the Bank opened the “digital doors” of MemoryBank, a national branchless banking platform. MemoryBank is a separately branded division of the Bank, which from a marketing perspective, focuses on technologically savvy clients that prefer to carry larger balances in highly liquid interest-bearing bank accounts.
Private Banking — The Bank provides financial products and services to high-net-worth individuals through its Private Banking department. The Bank’s Private Banking officers have extensive banking experience and are trained to meet the unique financial needs of this clientele.
Treasury Management Services — The Bank provides various deposit products designed for commercial business clients located throughout its market footprint. Lockbox processing, remote deposit capture, business on-line banking, account reconciliation, and ACH processing are additional services offered to commercial businesses through the Bank’s Treasury Management department.
Internet Banking — The Bank expands its market penetration and service delivery of its RB&T brand by offering clients Internet Banking services and products through its website, www.republicbank.com.
Mobile Banking — The Bank allows clients to easily and securely access and manage their accounts through its mobile banking application.
Other Banking Services — The Bank also provides title insurance and other financial institution-related products and services.
Bank Acquisitions — The Bank maintains an acquisition strategy to selectively grow its franchise as a complement to its organic growth strategies.
See additional discussion regarding the Traditional Banking segment under Footnote 25 “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(II) Warehouse Lending segment
Through its Warehouse segment, the Core Bank provides short-term, revolving credit facilities to mortgage bankers across the United States through mortgage warehouse lines of credit. These credit facilities are primarily secured by single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans. The credit facility enables the mortgage banking clients to close single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans in their own name and temporarily fund their inventory of these closed loans until the loans are sold to investors approved by the Bank. Individual loans are expected to remain on the warehouse line for an average of 15 to 30 days. Reverse mortgage loans typically remain on the line longer than conventional mortgage loans. Interest income and loan fees are accrued for each individual loan during the time the loan remains on the warehouse line and collected when the loan is sold. The Core Bank receives the sale proceeds of each loan directly from the investor and applies the funds to pay off the warehouse advance and related accrued interest and fees. The remaining proceeds are credited to the mortgage-banking client.
See additional discussion regarding the Warehouse Lending segment under Footnote 25 “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(III) Mortgage Banking segment
Mortgage Banking activities primarily include 15-, 20- and 30-year fixed-term single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans that are originated and sold into the secondary market, primarily to the FHLMC and the FNMA. The Bank typically retains servicing on loans sold into the secondary market. Administration of loans with servicing retained by the Bank includes collecting principal and interest payments, escrowing funds for property taxes and property insurance, and remitting payments to secondary market investors. The Bank receives fees for performing these standard servicing functions.
As part of the sale of loans with servicing retained, the Bank records MSRs. MSRs represent an estimate of the present value of future cash servicing income, net of estimated costs, which the Bank expects to receive on loans sold with servicing retained by the Bank. MSRs are capitalized as separate assets. This transaction is posted to net gain on sale of loans, a component of “Mortgage Banking income” in the income statement. Management considers all relevant factors, in addition to pricing considerations from other servicers, to estimate the fair value of the MSRs to be recorded when the loans are initially sold with servicing retained by the Bank. The carrying value of MSRs is initially amortized in proportion to and over the estimated period of net servicing income and subsequently adjusted quarterly based on the weighted average remaining life of the underlying loans. The MSR amortization is recorded as a reduction to net servicing income, a component of Mortgage Banking income.
With the assistance of an independent third party, the MSRs asset is reviewed at least quarterly for impairment based on the fair value of the MSRs using groupings of the underlying loans based on predominant risk characteristics. Any impairment of a grouping is reported as a valuation allowance. A primary factor influencing the fair value is the estimated life of the underlying loans serviced. The estimated life of the loans serviced is significantly influenced by market interest rates. During a period of declining interest rates, the fair value of the MSRs is expected to decline due to increased anticipated prepayment speeds within the portfolio. Alternatively, during a period of rising interest rates, the fair value of MSRs would be expected to increase as prepayment speeds on the underlying loans would be expected to decline.
See additional discussion regarding the Mortgage Banking segment under Footnote 25 “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
(IV) Tax Refund Solutions segment
Through the TRS segment, the Bank is one of a limited number of financial institutions that facilitates the receipt and payment of federal and state tax refund products and offers a credit product through third-party tax preparers located throughout the United States, as well as tax-preparation software providers (collectively, the “Tax Providers”). Substantially all of the business generated by the TRS segment occurs in the first half of the year. The TRS segment traditionally operates at a loss during the second half of the year, during which time the segment incurs costs preparing for the upcoming year’s tax season.
RTs are fee-based products whereby a tax refund is issued to the taxpayer after the Bank has received the refund from the federal or state government. There is no credit risk or borrowing cost associated with these products because they are only delivered to the taxpayer upon receipt of the tax refund directly from the governmental paying authority. Fees earned by the Company on RTs, net of revenue share, are reported as noninterest income under the line item “Net refund transfer fees.”
The EA tax credit product is a loan that allows a taxpayer to borrow funds as an advance of a portion of their tax refund. For the 2018 and 2019 fiscal years, the EA product had the following features:
EA features consistent during 2018 and 2019:
Offered only during the first two months of each year;
No requirement that the taxpayer pays for another bank product, such as an RT;
Multiple funds disbursement methods, including direct deposit, prepaid card, check, or Walmart Direct2Cash®, based on the taxpayer-customer’s election;
Repayment of the EA to the Bank is deducted from the taxpayer’s tax refund proceeds; and
If an insufficient refund to repay the EA occurs:
there is no recourse to the taxpayer,
no negative credit reporting on the taxpayer, and
no collection efforts against the taxpayer.
EA features modified from 2018 to 2019:
During 2019, the taxpayer was given the option to choose from multiple loan-amount tiers, subject to underwriting, up to a maximum advance amount of $6,250. This compares to a maximum loan amount of $3,500 during 2018; and
During 2018, EA fees were charged only to the Tax Providers. In 2019, the fee charged to the Tax Providers was lowered; and a direct fee to the taxpayer was charged. The APR to the taxpayer for his or her portion of the total fee equated to less than 36% for all offering tiers.
The Company reports fees paid for the EA product as interest income on loans. EAs are generally repaid within three weeks after the taxpayer’s tax return is submitted to the applicable taxing authority. EAs do not have a contractual due date but the Company considers an EA delinquent if it remains unpaid three weeks after the taxpayer’s tax return is submitted to the applicable taxing authority. Provisions for loan losses on EAs are estimated when advances are made, with provisions for all probable EA losses made in the first quarter of each year. Unpaid EAs are charged off by June 30th of each year, with EAs collected during the second half of each year recorded as recoveries of previously charged off loans.
Related to the overall credit losses on EAs, the Bank’s ability to control losses is highly dependent upon its ability to predict the taxpayer’s likelihood to receive the tax refund as claimed on the taxpayer’s tax return. Each year, the Bank’s EA approval model is based primarily on the prior-year’s tax refund payment patterns. Because the substantial majority of the EA volume occurs each year before that year’s tax refund payment patterns can be analyzed and subsequent underwriting changes made, credit losses during a current year could be higher than management’s predictions if tax refund payment patterns change materially between years.
In response to changes in the legal, regulatory and competitive environment, management annually reviews and revises the EA’s product parameters. Further changes in EA product parameters do not ensure positive results and could have an overall material negative impact on the performance of the EA and therefore on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. For the first quarter 2020 tax season, the Company modified the EA product’s pricing structure. The annual percentage rate to the taxpayer for his or her portion of the EA fee is not greater than 36% for all EA offering amounts.
See additional discussion regarding the EA product under the sections titled:
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses”
Republic Payment Solutions division
RPS is managed and operated within the TRS segment. The RPS division is an issuing bank offering general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards through third-party service providers. For the projected near-term, as the prepaid card program matures, the operating results of the RPS division are expected to be immaterial to the Company’s overall results of operations and will be reported as part of the TRS segment. The RPS division will not be considered a separate reportable segment until such time, if any, that it meets quantitative reporting thresholds.
The Company reports fees related to RPS programs under Program fees. Additionally, the Company’s portion of interchange revenue generated by prepaid card transactions is reported as noninterest income under “Interchange fee income.”
See additional discussion regarding the TRS segment under the sections titled:
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote 25 “Segment Information”
(V) Republic Credit Solutions segment
Through the RCS segment, the Bank offers consumer credit products. In general, the credit products are unsecured, small dollar consumer loans and are dependent on various factors including the consumer’s ability to repay. RCS loans typically earn a higher yield but also have higher credit risk compared to loans originated through the Traditional Banking segment, with a significant portion of RCS clients considered subprime or near-prime borrowers. The Bank uses third-party service providers for certain services such as marketing and loan servicing of RCS loans. Additional information regarding consumer loan products offered through RCS follows:
RCS line-of-credit product – The Bank originates a line-of-credit product to generally subprime borrowers in multiple states. Elevate Credit, Inc., a third-party service provider subject to the Bank’s oversight and supervision, provides the Bank with certain marketing and support services for the RCS line-of-credit program, while a separate third party provides loan servicing for the RCS line-of-credit product on the Bank’s behalf. The Bank is the lender for the RCS line-of-credit product and is marketed as such. Further, the Bank controls the loan terms and underwriting guidelines, and the Bank exercises consumer compliance oversight of the RCS line-of-credit product.
The Bank sells participation interests in the RCS line-of-credit product. These participation interests are a 90% interest in advances made to borrowers under the borrower’s line-of-credit account, and the participation interests are generally sold three business days following the Bank’s funding of the associated advances. Although the Bank retains a 10% participation interest in each advance, it maintains 100% ownership of the underlying RCS line-of-credit account with each borrower. The RCS line-of-credit product represents the substantial majority of RCS activity. Loan balances held for sale through this program are carried at the lower of cost or fair value.
RCS healthcare receivables products – The Bank originates healthcare-receivables products across the United States through two different third-party service providers. In one program, the Bank retains 100% of the receivables originated. In the other program, the Bank retains 100% of the receivables originated in some instances, and in other instances, sells 100% of the receivables within one month of origination. Loan balances held for sale through this program are carried at the lower of cost or fair value.
RCS installment loan products – From the first quarter of 2016 through the first quarter of 2018, the Bank piloted a consumer installment loan product across the United States using a third-party service provider. As part of the program, the Bank sold 100% of the balances generated through the program back to its third-party service provider approximately 21 days after origination. During the second quarter of 2018, the Bank and its third-party service provider suspended the origination of new loans and the sale of unsold loans through this program. Since program suspension in 2018, the Bank has carried all unsold loans under this program as “held for investment” on its balance sheet and has continued to wind down those balances. Additionally, loans under this program are carried at fair value under a fair value option on the Bank’s balance sheet with the portfolio marked to market monthly. Approximately $998,000 of balances remained held for investment under this program as of December 31, 2019.
Through a new program launched in December 2019, the Bank began offering RCS installment loans with terms ranging from 12 to 60 months to borrowers in multiple states. A third-party service provider subject to the Bank’s oversight and supervision provides the Bank with marketing services and loan servicing for these RCS installment loans. The Bank is the lender for these RCS installment loans, and is marketed as such. Further, the Bank controls the loan terms and underwriting guidelines, and the Bank exercises consumer compliance oversight of this RCS installment loan product. Currently, all loan balances originated under this RCS installment loan program are carried as “held for sale” on the Bank’s balance sheet, with the intention to sell these loans to its third-party service provider sixteen days following the Bank’s origination of the loans. Loans originated under this RCS installment loan program are carried at fair value under a fair-value option, with the portfolio marked to market monthly.
The Company reports interest income and loan origination fees earned on RCS loans under “Loans, including fees,” while any gains or losses on sale and mark-to-market adjustments of RCS loans are reported as noninterest income under “Program fees.”
See additional discussion regarding the RCS segment under the sections titled:
Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”
Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”
Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote 25 “Segment Information”
As of December 31, 2019, Republic had 1,080 FTE employees. Altogether, Republic had 1,068 full-time and 24 part-time employees. None of the Company’s employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement, and Republic has never experienced a work stoppage. The Company believes that it has had and continues to have good employee relations.
Information about our Executive Officers
See Part III, Item 10. “Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.” for information about the Company’s executive officers.
The Traditional Bank encounters intense competition in its market footprint in originating loans, attracting deposits, and selling other banking related financial services. Through its national branchless banking platform, MemoryBank, the Bank competes for digital and mobile clients in select pilot markets under the MemoryBank brand. The deregulation of the banking industry, the ability to create financial services holding companies to engage in a wide range of financial services other than banking and the widespread enactment of state laws that permit multi-bank holding companies, as well as the availability of nationwide interstate banking, has created a highly competitive environment for financial institutions. In one or more aspects of the Bank’s business, the Bank competes with local and regional retail and commercial banks, other savings banks, credit unions, finance companies, mortgage companies, fintech companies, and other financial intermediaries operating in Kentucky, Indiana, Florida, Tennessee, Ohio, and in other states where the Bank offers its products. The Bank also competes with insurance companies, consumer finance companies, investment banking firms, and mutual fund managers. Some of the Company’s competitors are not subject to the same degree of regulatory review and restrictions that apply to the Company and the Bank. Many of the Bank’s primary competitors, some of which are affiliated with large bank holding companies or other larger financial based institutions, have substantially greater resources, larger established client bases, higher lending limits, more extensive banking center networks, numerous ATMs or ITMs, and greater advertising and marketing budgets. They may also offer services that the Bank does not currently provide. These competitors attempt to gain market share through their financial product mix, pricing strategies, and banking center locations. Legislative developments related to interstate branching and banking in general, by providing large banking institutions easier access to a broader marketplace, can act to create more pressure on smaller financial institutions to consolidate. It is anticipated that competition from both bank and non-bank entities will continue to remain strong in the foreseeable future.
The primary factors in competing for bank products are convenient locations and ATMs, ITMs, flexible hours, deposit interest rates, services, internet banking, mobile banking, range of lending services offered, and lending fees. Additionally, the Bank believes that an emphasis on highly personalized service tailored to individual client needs, together with the local character of the Bank’s business and its “community bank” management philosophy will continue to enhance the Bank’s ability to compete successfully in its market footprint.
The Bank faces strong competition from financial institutions across the United States for mortgage banking clients in need of warehouse lines of credit. Competitors may have substantially greater resources, larger established client bases, higher lending limits, as well as underwriting standards and on-going oversight requirements that could be viewed more favorably by some clients. A few or all of these factors can lead to a competitive disadvantage to the Company when attempting to retain or grow its Warehouse client base.
The Bank encounters intense competition from mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers, and financial institutions for the origination and funding of mortgage loans. Many competitors have branch offices in the same areas where the Bank’s loan officers operate. The Bank also competes with mortgage companies whose focus is often on telemarketing and consumer-direct lending.
Tax Refund Solutions
The TRS segment encounters direct competition for RT and EA market share from a limited number of banks in the industry. The Bank promotes these products to Tax Providers using various revenue-share and pricing incentives, as well as product features and overall service levels.
Republic Payment Solutions
The prepaid card industry is subject to intense and increasing competition. The Bank competes with a number of companies that market different types of prepaid card products, such as general-purpose-reloadable, gift, incentive, and corporate disbursement cards. There is also competition from large retailers who are seeking to integrate more financial services into their product offerings.
Increased competition is also expected from alternative financial services providers who are often well-positioned to service the “underbanked” and who may wish to develop their own prepaid card programs.
Republic Credit Solutions
The small-dollar consumer loan industry is highly competitive. Competitors for the Company’s small-dollar loan programs include, but are not limited to, billers who accept late payments for a fee, overdraft privilege programs of other banks and credit unions, as well as payday lenders and fintech companies.
New entrants to the small-dollar consumer loan market must successfully implement underwriting and fraud prevention processes, overcome consumer brand loyalty, and have sufficient capital to withstand early losses associated with unseasoned loan portfolios. In addition, there are substantial regulatory and compliance costs, including the need for expertise to customize products associated with licenses to lend in various states across the United States.
Supervision and Regulation
The Company and the Bank are separate and distinct entities and are subject to extensive federal and state banking laws and regulations, which establish a comprehensive framework of activities in which the Company and the Bank may engage. These laws and regulations are primarily intended to provide protection to clients and depositors, not stockholders. The Company, as a public reporting company, is also subject to various securities laws and regulations.
As an umbrella supervisor under the GLBA's system of functional regulation, the FRB requires that FHCs operate in a safe and sound manner so that their financial condition does not threaten the viability of affiliated depository institutions. The FRB conducts periodic examinations to review the Company’s safety and soundness, and compliance with various legal and safety and soundness requirements.
The Bank is a Kentucky-chartered commercial banking and trust corporation and as such, it is subject to supervision and regulation by the FDIC and the KDFI. The Bank also operates physical locations in Florida, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee; originates and purchases loans on a national basis; and accepts deposits on a national basis through its MemoryBank digital brand. All deposits, subject to regulatory prescribed limitations, held by the Bank are insured by the FDIC. The Bank is subject to restrictions, requirements, potential enforcement actions and examinations by the FDIC and KDFI. The FRB’s regulation of the Company with monetary policies and operational rules directly impact the Bank. The Bank is a member of the FHLB System.
As a member of the FHLB system, the Bank must also comply with applicable regulations of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Regulation by each of these agencies is intended primarily for the protection of the Bank’s depositors and the DIF and not for the benefit of the Company’s stockholders. The Bank’s activities are also regulated under federal and state consumer protection laws applicable to the Bank’s lending, deposit, and other activities. An adverse ruling or finding against the Company or the Bank under these laws could have a material adverse effect on results of operations.
The Company and the Bank are also subject to the regulations of the CFPB, which was established under the Dodd-Frank Act. The CFPB has consolidated rules and orders with respect to consumer financial products and services and has substantial power to define the rights of consumers and responsibilities of lending institutions, such as the Bank. The CFPB does not, however, examine or supervise the Bank for compliance with such regulations; rather, based on the Bank’s size (less than $10 billion in assets), enforcement authority remains with the FDIC although the Bank may be required to submit reports or other materials to the CFPB upon its request. Notwithstanding jurisdictional limitations set forth in the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFPB and federal banking regulators may endeavor to work jointly in investigating and resolving cases as they arise.
Regulators have extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement authority and examination policies, including, but not limited to, policies that can materially impact the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves. Any change in regulatory requirements and policies, whether by the FRB, the FDIC, the KDFI, the CFPB or state or federal legislation, could have a material adverse impact on Company operations.
Regulators also have broad enforcement powers over banks and their holding companies, including, but not limited to: the power to mandate or restrict particular actions, activities, or divestitures; impose monetary fines and other penalties for violations of laws and
regulations; issue cease and desist or removal orders; seek injunctions; publicly disclose such actions; and prohibit unsafe or unsound practices. This authority includes both informal and formal actions to effect corrective actions and/or sanctions. In addition, the Bank is subject to regulation and potential enforcement actions by other state and federal agencies.
Certain regulatory requirements applicable to the Company and the Bank are referred to below or elsewhere in this filing. The description of statutory provisions and regulations applicable to banks and their holding companies set forth in this filing does not purport to be a complete description of such statutes and regulations. Their effect on the Company and the Bank is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations.
The Dodd-Frank Act
The Dodd-Frank Act, among other things, implemented changes that affected the oversight and supervision of financial institutions, provided for a new resolution procedure for large financial companies, created the CFPB, introduced more stringent regulatory capital requirements and significant changes in the regulation of OTC derivatives, reformed the regulation of credit rating agencies, increased controls and transparency in corporate governance and executive compensation practices, incorporated the Volcker Rule, required registration of advisers to certain private funds, and influenced significant changes in the securitization market. The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (the “EGRRCPA”) and its implementing regulations pulled back some of the more stringent requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act for community banks with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, such as the Bank. Due to exemptions in the Dodd-Frank Act, the EGRRCPA, and each Act’s implementing regulations, the Company and Bank are not subject to several provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act including but not limited to 1) the Durbin Amendment that would otherwise limit the interchange fees the Bank could charge on debit card transactions, 2) the Volcker Rule that would affect the Company’s ability to invest in or engage in certain trading activities, and 3) stricter regulatory capital requirements.
Incentive and Executive Compensation — In 2010, the FRB and other regulators jointly published final guidance for structuring incentive compensation arrangements at financial organizations. The guidance does not set forth any formulas or pay caps but contains certain principles that companies are required to follow with respect to employees and groups of employees that may expose the company to material amounts of risk. The three primary principles are (i) balanced risk-taking incentives, (ii) compatibility with effective controls and risk management, and (iii) strong corporate governance. The FRB monitors compliance with this guidance as part of its safety and soundness oversight.
In 2016, the FRB, SEC, and other regulators jointly published proposed rules on incentive compensation under Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act. If these rules are finalized, the Company and the Bank, due to the value of their total consolidated assets, would only be subject to the most basic set of prohibitions and requirements, which prohibit “excessive compensation, fees, or benefits” or any compensation agreement that “could lead to material financial loss.”
The proposed rules would also require that the Company’s board of directors, or a committee thereof, conduct oversight of its incentive-based compensation program and approve incentive-based compensation arrangements for senior executive officers. Additionally, the Company and the Bank would be required to create and maintain records that document the structure of all the incentive-based compensation arrangements, demonstrate compliance with the final rules, and disclose those records to the appropriate Federal regulator upon request
Source of Strength Doctrine — The Dodd-Frank Act codifies the Federal Reserve Board’s existing “source of strength” policy that holding companies act as a source of strength to their insured institution subsidiaries by providing capital, liquidity and other support in times of distress. FRB policies and regulations also prohibit bank holding companies from engaging in unsafe and unsound banking practices. The FDIC and the KDFI have similar restrictions with respect to the Bank. Under the Dodd-Frank Act and in line with prior FRB policy, a BHC is expected to act as a source of financial strength to its banking subsidiaries and to commit resources for their support. This support may restrict the Company’s ability to pay dividends, and may be required at times when, absent this FRB policy, a holding company may not be inclined to provide it. A BHC may also be required to guarantee the capital restoration plan of an undercapitalized banking subsidiary and any applicable cross-guarantee provisions that may apply to the Company. In addition, any capital loans by the Company to its bank subsidiary are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of the bank subsidiary. In the event of a BHC’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the BHC to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
Acquisitions and Strategic Planning — The Company is required to obtain the prior approval of the FRB under the BHCA before it may, among other things, acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank, or ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank, if after such acquisition it would own or control, directly or indirectly, more than 5% of any class of the voting shares of such bank. In addition, the Bank must obtain regulatory approval before entering into certain transactions, such as adding new banking offices and mergers with, or acquisitions of, other financial institutions. This may affect the Company’s or the Bank’s acquisition or timely acquisition of interests in other banks, other merger and acquisition activity and banking office expansion.
The BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act also generally require the approval of the Federal Reserve before any person or company can acquire control of a bank or BHC. Acquisition of control occurs if immediately after a transaction, the acquiring person or company owns, controls, or holds voting securities of the institution with the power to vote 25% or more of any class. Control is refutably presumed to exist if, immediately after a transaction, the acquiring person or company owns, controls, or holds voting securities of the institution with the power to vote 10% or more of any class, and (i) the institution has registered securities under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; or (ii) no other person will own, control, or hold the power to vote a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the transaction.
Financial Activities — As an FHC, the Company is permitted to engage directly or indirectly in a broader range of activities than those permitted for a BHC under the BHCA. Permitted activities for an FHC include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking and other activities that are declared by the FRB, in cooperation with the Treasury Department, to be “financial in nature or incidental thereto” or are declared by the FRB unilaterally to be “complementary” to financial activities. Permitted activities also include those determined to be “closely related to banking” activities by the FRB under the BHCA and permissible for any BHC. An FHC is allowed to conduct permissible new financial activities or acquire permissible non-bank financial companies with after-the-fact notice to the FRB. A BHC may elect to become an FHC if it and each of its banking subsidiaries is well capitalized, is well managed and has at least a “Satisfactory” rating under the CRA. To maintain FHC status, the Company and the Bank must continue to meet the well capitalized and well managed requirements. The failure to meet such requirements could result in material restrictions on the activities of the Company and may also adversely affect the Company’s ability to enter into certain transactions (including mergers and acquisitions) or obtain necessary approvals in connection therewith, as well as loss of FHC status. If restrictions are imposed on the activities of an FHC, such information may not necessarily be available to the public.
The Kentucky and federal banking statutes prescribe the permissible activities in which a Kentucky chartered bank may engage and where those activities may be conducted. Kentucky’s statutes contain a super parity provision that permits a well-rated Kentucky bank to engage in any banking activity in which a national bank in Kentucky, a state bank, state thrift, or state savings association operating in any other state, a federal savings bank or a federal thrift meeting the qualified thrift lender test engages, provided it first obtains a legal opinion from counsel specifying the statutory or regulatory provisions that permit the activity.
Safety and Soundness – The federal banking regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, guidelines for all insured depository institutions relating to: (i) internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate risk exposure; (v) asset growth; (vi) asset quality; (vii) earnings; and (viii) compensation, fees and benefits. The guidelines set forth safety and soundness standards that the federal banking regulatory agencies use to identify and address problems at FDIC member institutions before capital becomes impaired. If the FDIC determines that the Bank fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the FDIC may require the Bank to submit to it an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. FDIC regulations establish deadlines for the submission and review of such safety and soundness compliance plans in response to any such determination. We are not aware of any conditions relating to these safety and soundness standards that would require us to submit a plan of compliance to the FDIC.
Branching — Kentucky law generally permits a Kentucky chartered bank to establish a branch office in any county in Kentucky. A Kentucky bank may also, subject to regulatory approval and certain restrictions, establish a branch office outside of Kentucky. Well-capitalized Kentucky state chartered banks that have been in operation at least three years and that satisfy certain criteria relating to, among other things, their composite and management exam ratings, may establish a branch in Kentucky without the approval of the Commissioner of the KDFI, upon notice to the KDFI and any other state bank with its main office located in the county where the new branch will be located. Branching by banks not meeting these criteria requires the approval of the Commissioner of the KDFI, who
must ascertain and determine that the public convenience and advantage will be served and promoted and that there is a reasonable probability of the successful operation of the branch. In any case, the proposed branch must also be approved by the FDIC, which considers a number of factors, including financial condition, capital adequacy, earnings prospects, character of management, needs of the community and consistency with corporate powers. As a result of several legislative acts including the Dodd-Frank Act, the Bank, along with any other national or state-chartered bank generally may branch across state lines. Such unlimited branching authority has the potential to increase competition within the markets in which the Company and the Bank operate.
Affiliate Transaction Restrictions — Transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, and in some cases the Bank’s correspondent banks, are subject to FDIC regulations, the FRB’s Regulations O and W, and Sections 23A, 23B, 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act (“FRA”). In general, these transactions must be on terms and conditions that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices and substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank or its subsidiary, as those for comparable transactions with non-affiliated parties. In addition, certain types of these transactions referred to as “covered transactions” are subject to quantitative limits based on a percentage of the Bank’s capital, thereby restricting the total dollar amount of transactions the Bank may engage in with each individual affiliate and with all affiliates in the aggregate. Affiliates must pledge qualifying collateral in amounts between 100% and 130% of the covered transaction in order to receive loans from the Bank. Limitations are also imposed on loans and extensions of credit by a bank to its executive officers, directors and principal stockholders and each of their related interests. The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of these regulations, including by applying them to the credit exposure arising under derivative transactions, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, and securities borrowing and lending transactions.
The FRB promulgated Regulation W to implement Sections 23A and 23B of the FRA. This regulation contains many of the foregoing restrictions and addresses derivative transactions, overdraft facilities, and other transactions between a bank and its non-bank affiliates.
Restrictions on Distribution of Subsidiary Bank Dividends and Assets — Bank regulators may declare a dividend payment to be unsafe and unsound even if the Bank continues to meet its capital requirements after the dividend. Dividends paid by the Bank provide substantially all of the Company’s operating funds. Regulatory requirements limit the amount of dividends that may be paid by the Bank. Under federal regulations, the Bank cannot pay a dividend if, after paying the dividend, the Bank would be undercapitalized.
Under Kentucky and federal banking regulations, the dividends the Bank can pay during any calendar year are generally limited to its profits for that year, plus its retained net profits for the two preceding years, less any required transfers to surplus or to fund the retirement of preferred stock or debt, absent approval of the respective state or federal banking regulators. FDIC regulations also require all insured depository institutions to remain in a safe and sound condition, as defined in regulations, as a condition of having FDIC deposit insurance.
FDIC Deposit Insurance Assessments — All Bank deposits are insured to the maximum extent permitted by the DIF. These bank deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. As insurer, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by, insured institutions. It also may prohibit any insured institution from engaging in any activity determined by regulation or order to pose a serious threat to the DIF.
The FDIC assesses all banks quarterly. A bank’s assessment base and assessment rates are determined quarterly and are risk-based. For small banks (such as the Bank) post-Dodd-Frank and certain rule changes effective in 2016, individual assessment rates are individually assigned based on the FDIC’s financial ratios method that estimates the probability of the bank’s failure over three years using financial data and a weighted average of the bank’s CAMELS component ratings, subject to adjustment. CAMELS composite ratings are used to set minimum and maximum assessment rates. The assessment base, post-Dodd-Frank, is the average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.
The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution, including the Bank, if it determines that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed by an agreement with the FDIC. It may also suspend deposit insurance temporarily if the institution has no tangible capital. If insurance is terminated, the accounts at the institution at the time of the termination, less subsequent withdrawals, shall continue to be insured for a period of six months to two years, as determined by the FDIC. Management is aware of no existing circumstances that would result in termination of the Bank’s FDIC deposit insurance.
Anti-Money Laundering, Patriot Act; OFAC Sanctions – The Company and the Bank are subject to federal laws that are designed to counter money laundering and terrorist financing, and transactions with persons, companies or foreign governments sanctioned by the United States. These laws include the Bank Secrecy Act, the Money Laundering Control Act, and the USA Patriot Act, as administered by the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control. These laws obligate depository institutions and broker-dealers to verify their customers’ identity, conduct customer due diligence, report on suspicious activity, file reports of transactions in currency and conduct enhanced due diligence on certain accounts. They also prohibit U.S. persons from engaging in transactions with certain designated restricted countries and persons. Depository institutions and broker-dealers are required by their federal regulators to maintain robust policies and procedures in order to ensure compliance with these obligations. In cooperation with federal banking regulatory agencies, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is responsible for implementing, administering, and enforcing compliance with these laws.
Failure to comply with these laws or maintain an adequate compliance program can lead to significant monetary penalties and reputational damage. Federal regulators evaluate the effectiveness of an applicant in combating money laundering when determining whether to approve a proposed bank merger, acquisition, restructuring, or other expansionary activity.
Consumer Laws and Regulations —The Bank is subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws, including, but not limited to, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Military Lending Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, and these laws’ respective state-law counterparts, among many others. As discussed in more detail below, we also comply with fair lending and privacy laws. Banks as well as nonbanks are subject to any rule, regulation or guideline created by the CFPB. The CFPB is an independent “watchdog” within the Federal Reserve System that regulates any person who offers or provides personal, family or household financial products or services. Congress established the CFPB to create one agency in charge of protecting consumers by overseeing the application and implementation of “Federal consumer financial laws,” which includes (i) rules, orders and guidelines of the CFPB, (ii) all consumer financial protection functions, powers and duties transferred from other federal agencies, such as the Federal Reserve, the OCC, the FDIC, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and (iii) a long list of consumer financial protection laws enumerated in the Dodd-Frank Act including those listed above.
The CFPB is authorized to prescribe rules applicable to any covered person or service provider identifying and prohibiting acts or practices that are unfair, deceptive or abusive in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product or service. The CFPB has engaged in rulemaking and taken enforcement actions that directly impact the business operations of financial institutions offering consumer financial products or services including the Bank and its divisions. Depository institutions with $10 billion or less in assets, such as the Bank, will continue to be examined for compliance with the consumer protection laws and regulations by their primary bank regulators (the FDIC for the Bank), rather than the CFPB. The FDIC also regulates what it considers unfair and deceptive practices under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Such laws and regulations and the other consumer protection laws and regulations to which the Bank has been subject have historically mandated certain disclosure requirements and regulated the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits from, making loans to, or engaging in other types of transactions with, such customers. The continued effect of the CFPB on the development and promulgation of consumer protection rules and guidelines and the enforcement of federal “consumer financial laws” on the Bank, if any, cannot be determined with certainty at this time.
Community Reinvestment Act and the Fair Lending Laws – Banks have a responsibility under the CRA and related regulations of the FDIC to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act prohibit lenders from discriminating in their lending practices on the basis of characteristics specified in those statutes. An institution’s failure to comply with the provisions of the CRA could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on its activities and the denial of applications. In addition, an institution’s failure to comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act could result in the FDIC, other federal regulatory agencies or the Department of Justice, taking enforcement actions against the institution. Failure by the Bank to fully comply with these laws could result in material penalties being assessed against the Bank. The Bank received a “Satisfactory” CRA Performance Evaluation in May 2018, its most recent evaluation. A copy of the public section of this CRA Performance Evaluation is available to the public upon request.
Privacy and Data Security – The FRB, FDIC, and other bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines (the “Guidelines”) for safeguarding confidential, personal customer information. The Guidelines require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its board of directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to create, implement and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. If the Bank fails to properly safeguard customer information or is the subject of a successful cyber-attack, it could result in material fines and/or liabilities that would materially affect the Company’s results of operations.
In addition, various U.S. regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the SEC, have increased their focus on cyber-security through guidance, examinations and regulations. The Company has adopted a customer information security program that has been approved by the Company’s Board of Directors.
The GLBA requires financial institutions to implement policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of nonpublic personal information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. In general, the statute requires explanations to consumers on policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of such nonpublic personal information, and, except as otherwise required by law, prohibits disclosing such information except as provided in the banking subsidiary’s policies and procedures. In addition to the GLBA, the Company and the Bank are also subject to state and international privacy laws.
Prohibitions Against Tying Arrangements — The Bank is subject to prohibitions on certain tying arrangements. A depository institution is prohibited, subject to certain exceptions, from extending credit to or offering any other service, or fixing or varying the consideration for such extension of credit or service, on the condition that the client obtain some additional product or service from the institution or its affiliates or not obtain services of a competitor of the institution.
Depositor Preference — The FDIA provides that, in the event of the “liquidation or other resolution” of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors (including depositors whose deposits are payable only outside of the U.S.), and the parent BHC, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.
Federal Home Loan Bank System — The FHLB offers credit to its members, which include savings banks, commercial banks, insurance companies, credit unions, and other entities. The FHLB system is currently divided into eleven federally chartered regional FHLBs that are regulated by the Federal Housing Finance Agency. The Bank is a member and owns capital stock in the FHLB Cincinnati. The amount of capital stock the Bank must own to maintain its membership depends on its balance of outstanding advances. It is required to acquire and hold shares in an amount at least equal to 1% of the aggregate principal amount of its unpaid single-family, residential real estate loans and similar obligations at the beginning of each year, or 1/20th of its outstanding advances from the FHLB, whichever is greater. Advances are secured by pledges of loans, mortgage backed securities and capital stock of the FHLB. FHLBs also purchase mortgages in the secondary market through their MPP. The Bank has never sold loans to the MPP.
In the event of a default on an advance, the Federal Home Loan Bank Act establishes priority of the FHLB’s claim over various other claims. If an FHLB falls below its minimum capital requirements, the FHLB may seek to require its members to purchase additional capital stock of the FHLB. If problems within the FHLB system were to occur, it could adversely affect the pricing or availability of advances, the amount and timing of dividends on capital stock issued by FHLB Cincinnati to its members, or the ability of members to have their FHLB capital stock redeemed on a timely basis. Congress continues to consider various proposals that could establish a new regulatory structure for the FHLB system, as well as for other government-sponsored entities. The Bank cannot predict at this time, which, if any, of these proposals may be adopted or what effect they would have on the Bank’s business.
Federal Reserve System — Under regulations of the FRB, the Bank is required to maintain noninterest-earning reserves against its transaction accounts (primarily NOW and regular checking accounts). The Bank is in compliance with the foregoing reserve requirements. Required reserves must be maintained in the form of vault cash, a depository account at the FRB, or a pass-through account as defined by the FRB. The balances maintained to meet the reserve requirements imposed by the FRB may be used to satisfy liquidity requirements imposed by the FDIC. The Bank is also authorized to borrow from the FRB discount window.
Loans to One Borrower — Under current limits, loans and extensions of credit outstanding at one time to a single borrower and not fully secured generally may not exceed 15% of the institution’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Loans and extensions of credit fully secured by certain readily marketable collateral may represent an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus.
Loans to Insiders — The Bank’s authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers and principal shareholders, as well as to entities controlled by such persons, is governed by the requirements of Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the FRA and Regulation O of the Federal Reserve Board. Among other things, these provisions require that extensions of credit to insiders: (a) be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with non-insiders and that do not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other features that are unfavorable to the Bank; and (b) not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons, individually and in the aggregate, which limits are based, in part, on the amount of the Bank’s capital. In addition, extensions of credit to insiders in excess of certain limits must be approved by the Bank’s Board of Directors.
Capital Adequacy Requirements
Capital Guidelines — The Company and the Bank are subject to capital regulations in accordance with Basel III, as administered by banking regulators. Regulatory agencies measure capital adequacy within a framework that makes capital requirements, in part, dependent on the individual risk profiles of financial institutions. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can initiate certain mandatory and possibly additional discretionary actions by regulators, including prompt corrective action as described below, that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on Republic’s financial statements. Under capital adequacy guidelines and the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, the Company and the Bank must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of the Company’s assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items, as calculated under regulatory accounting practices. The capital amounts and classification are also subject to qualitative judgments by the regulators regarding components, risk weightings and other factors.
Banking regulators have categorized the Bank as well-capitalized. For purposes of determining if prompt corrective action is called for, the regulations in accordance with Basel III define “well capitalized” as a 10.0% Total Risk-Based Capital ratio, a 6.5% Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio, an 8.0% Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio, and a 5.0% Tier 1 Leverage ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid limitations on capital distributions, including dividend payments and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers, the Company and Bank must hold a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% composed of Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital above their minimum risk-based capital requirements.
As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s capital ratios were as follows:
December 31, (dollars in thousands)
Total capital to risk-weighted assets
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
Republic Bank & Trust Company
Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
Republic Bank & Trust Company
Tier 1 (core) capital to risk-weighted assets
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
Republic Bank & Trust Company
Tier 1 leverage capital to average assets
Republic Bancorp, Inc.
Republic Bank & Trust Company
Corrective Measures for Capital Deficiencies — The banking regulators are required to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to capital deficient institutions. Agency regulations define, for each capital category, the levels at which institutions are well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. A bank is undercapitalized if it fails to meet any one of the ratios required to be adequately capitalized.
Undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized institutions are required to submit a capital restoration plan, which must be guaranteed by the holding company of the institution. In addition, agency regulations contain broad restrictions on certain activities of undercapitalized institutions including asset growth, acquisitions, branch establishment, and expansion into new lines of business. With certain exceptions, an insured depository institution is prohibited from making capital distributions, including dividends, and is prohibited from paying management fees to control persons if the institution would be undercapitalized after any such distribution or payment. A bank’s capital classification will also affect its ability to accept brokered deposits. Under banking regulations, a bank may not lawfully accept, roll over or renew brokered deposits, unless it is either well capitalized or it is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from its applicable regulator.
If a banking institution’s capital decreases below acceptable levels, bank regulatory enforcement powers become more enhanced. A significantly undercapitalized institution is subject to mandated capital raising activities, restrictions on interest rates paid and transactions with affiliates, removal of management and other restrictions. Banking regulators have limited discretion in dealing with a critically undercapitalized institution and are normally required to appoint a receiver or conservator. Banks with risk-based capital and leverage ratios below the required minimums may also be subject to certain administrative actions, including the termination of deposit insurance upon notice and hearing, or a temporary suspension of insurance without a hearing if the institution has no tangible capital.
In addition, a BHC may face significant consequences if its bank subsidiary fails to maintain the required capital and management ratings, including entering into an agreement with the FRB that imposes limitations on its operations and may even require divestitures. Until such deficiencies are corrected, the FRB may impose any limitations or conditions on the conduct or activities of the FHC and its affiliates that the FRB determines are appropriate, and the FHC may not commence any additional activity or acquire control of any company under Section 4(k) of the BHCA without prior FRB approval. Unless the period for compliance is extended by the FRB, if an FHC fails to correct deficiencies in maintaining its qualification for FHC status within 180 days of notice to the FRB, the FRB may order divestiture of any depository institution controlled by the company. A company may comply with a divestiture order by ceasing to engage in any financial or other activity that would not be permissible for a BHC that has not elected to be treated as an FHC. The Company is currently classified as an FHC.
Under FDICIA, each federal banking agency has prescribed, by regulation, non-capital safety and soundness standards for institutions under its authority. These standards cover internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, such other operational and managerial standards as the agency determines to be appropriate, and standards for asset quality, earnings and stock valuation. An institution that fails to meet these standards must develop a plan acceptable to the agency, specifying the steps that the institution will take to meet the standards. Failure to submit or implement such a plan may subject the institution to regulatory sanctions.
Other Regulation and Legislative Initiatives
Any change in the regulations affecting the Bank’s operations is not predictable and could affect the Bank’s operations and profitability. The U.S. Congress and state legislative bodies also continually consider proposals for altering the structure, regulation, and competitive relationships of financial institutions. It cannot be predicted whether, or in what form, any of these potential proposals or regulatory initiatives will be adopted, the impact the proposals will have on the financial institutions industry or the extent to which the business or financial condition and operations of the Company and its subsidiaries may be affected.
The statistical disclosures required by Part I Item 1 “Business” are located under Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS
An investment in Republic’s common stock is subject to risks inherent in its business. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included in this filing. In addition to the risks and uncertainties described below, other risks and uncertainties not currently known to the Company or that the Company currently deems to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations in the future. The value or market price of the Company’s common stock could decline due to any of these identified or other risks, and an investor could lose all or part of their investment.
There are factors, many beyond the Company’s control, which may significantly change the results or expectations of the Company. Some of these factors are described below, however, many are described in the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ACCOUNTING POLICIES/ESTIMATES, ACCOUNTING STANDARDS, AND INTERNAL CONTROL
The Company’s accounting policies and estimates are critical components of the Company’s presentation of its financial statements. Management must exercise judgment in selecting and adopting various accounting policies and in applying estimates. Actual outcomes may be materially different from amounts previously estimated. Management has identified several accounting policies and estimates as being critical to the presentation of the Company’s financial statements. These policies are described in Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the section titled “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.” The Company’s management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many accounting policies and methods in order to comply with generally accepted accounting principles and reflect management’s judgment of the most appropriate manner to report the Company’s financial condition and results. In some cases, management may select an accounting policy that might be reasonable under the circumstances, yet might result in the Company’s reporting different results than would have been reported under a different alternative. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates.
The Bank may experience goodwill impairment, which could reduce its earnings. The Bank performed its annual goodwill impairment test during the fourth quarter of 2019 as of September 30, 2019. The evaluation of the fair value of goodwill requires management judgment. If management’s judgment was incorrect and goodwill impairment was later deemed to exist, the Bank would be required to write down its goodwill resulting in a charge to earnings, which would adversely affect its results of operations, perhaps materially.
Changes in accounting standards could materially impact the Company’s financial statements. The FASB may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of the Company’s financial statements. These changes can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how the Company records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. In addition, those who interpret the accounting standards, such as the SEC, the banking regulators and the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm may amend or reverse their previous interpretations or conclusions regarding how various standards should be applied. In some cases, the Company could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the Company recasting, or possibly restating, prior period financial statements. See additional discussion regarding accounting standard updates in Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplemental Data” under the section titled “Accounting Standards Updates.”
If the Company does not maintain strong internal controls and procedures, it may impact profitability. Management reviews and updates its internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures on a routine basis. This system is designed to provide reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the internal controls comply with appropriate regulatory guidance. Any undetected circumvention of these controls could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.
TRADITIONAL BANK LENDING AND THE ALLOWANCE
The Allowance could be insufficient to cover the Bank’s actual loan losses. The Bank makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of its loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of its borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of many of its loans. In determining the amount of the Allowance, among other things, the Bank reviews its loss and delinquency experience, economic conditions, etc. If its assumptions are incorrect, the Allowance may not be sufficient to cover losses